NMN Enters Cells via Newly Discovered Pathway

A new study published in Nature Metabolism finally reveals the answer to how NMN enters the cell in order to become NAD+ and that it does not need to convert into NR to do so.

In the last few years, there has been considerable interest in restoring levels of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) coenzyme to combat age-related diseases. Evidence suggests that NAD+ systemically declines with age in a variety of organisms, including rodents and humans, which contributes to the development of many age-related diseases and metabolic conditions.

‘Stressors’ in middle age linked to cognitive decline in older women Johns Hopkins Medicine

A new analysis of data on more than 900 Baltimore adults has linked stressful life experiences among middle-aged women — but not men — to greater memory decline in later life. The researchers say their findings add to evidence that stress hormones play an uneven gender role in brain health, and align with well-documented higher rates of Alzheimer’s disease in women than men. 

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, 1 in 6 women over age 60 will get Alzheimer’s disease, compared with 1 in 11 men. There currently are no proven treatments that prevent or halt progression of the disease.

A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies multiple longevity genes

“We performed a genome-wide association study of longevity-related phenotypes in individuals of European, East Asian and African American ancestry and identified the APOE and GPR78 loci to be associated with these phenotypes in our study. Moreover, our gene-level association analyses highlight a role for tissue-specific expression of genes at chromosome 5q13.3, 12q13.2, 17q21.31, and 19q13.32 in longevity. Genetic correlation analyses show that our longevity-related phenotypes are genetically correlated with several disease-related phenotypes, which in turn could help to identify phenotypes that could be used as potential biomarkers for longevity in future (genetic) studies.”

Longevity and anti-aging research: ‘Prime time for an impact on the globe’

David Sinclair is among a group of researchers collaborating on a new nonprofit academy to promote aging research and drug discovery.

“We’re generally in denial that, for most of the diseases that we get these days, the root cause is aging. I don’t know 10-year-olds that get Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease.”- David Sinclair

The Harvard Gazette interviews David Sinclair, one of the pioneers of longevity research and more recently known for his Harvard study into the restoration of the Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) molecule in mouse cells, along with 16 researchers from Harvard, MIT, and other institutions around the U.S. and Europe, launched the nonprofit Academy for Health and Lifespan Research  to promote future work, ease collaborations between scientists, and ensure that governments and corporations are making decisions based on the latest facts instead of rumor, speculation, or hype.

Sinclair talks frankly about his research, convincing the FDA aging is a disease, and how he plans on controlling the exploding science of longevity.

‘Tickle’ therapy could help slow aging, research suggests

‘Tickling’ the ear with a small electrical current appears to rebalance the autonomic nervous system for over-55s, potentially slowing down one of the effects of ageing, according to new research at the University of Leeds.

The new study explores the impact the vagus nerve has on age.  The therapy, called transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation, delivers a small, painless electrical current to the ear, which sends signals to the body’s nervous system through the vagus nerve.

The vagus nerve runs from the brain through the face and to the thorax, to the abdomen. It is the longest and most complex of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves that emanate from the brain. It transmits information to or from the surface of the brain to tissues and organs elsewhere in the body, it is part of a circuit that links the neck, heart, lungs, and abdomen.

Do you LOVE your heart as much as it loves you?

What causes high blood pressure and what can you do to avoid it happening to you.

The next time you are waiting in line at the Department of Motor Vehicles, look around. The probability is good that one-in-three people, sitting, standing, taking a number or complaining at customer service, suffer from high blood pressure. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a shocking 75 million adults in the United States currently tangle with one of the two types of the disease. The condition has held an unpleasant place of first, on the list of top five diseases that lead to death in the U.S. annually.  

What is blood pressure?

The heart has a vital but simple function.  It is a muscle, that pumps blood around the body. It has one job, but does it very well. The reason for all of that pumping is to push blood with low oxygen levels toward the lungs, which replenishes the blood’s oxygen supplies. When the heart constricts to create the force to push the blood, that’s the systolic number, or the first number recorded when the nurse or doctor takes your blood pressure. Diastolic, is the second number logged, and the amount of pressure in the arteries when the heart relaxes before the next beat.

The heart then pumps the newly oxygen-rich blood around the body to supply the muscles and cells. All this pumping action creates pressure on the vessels. It is this pressure that is gauged when a sphygmomanometer, or an inflatable cuff on the upper arm, is used as part of a regular office health check.

Some pressure is good, and necessary. But according to an article on high blood pressure from Harvard University Medical School, too much of a good thing is usually a bad thing.

Two types of high blood pressure

Secondary Hypertension high blood pressure is a growing problem in the U.S., and largely due to poor food choices, stress and lack of exercise. Secondary Hypertension is when there is a known reason for the higher levels of pressure on the blood vessels and arteries. Things that can cause Secondary Hypertension usually include: diet, medicine, lifestyle, age, and genetics.

Conversely, Primary Hypertension or Essential Hypertension, as it’s more commonly known, make up the bulk of the cases, between 90 and 95% annually. According to Hendrick Medical Center, Primary Hypertension tends to develop gradually over many years, whereas Secondary Hypertension often comes on quickly.  

Normal blood pressure vs. high blood pressure – Get yours checked.

Life choices impact blood pressure

If we inherit a disease, or the propensity for a disease, our best defense is to live well, eat well, exercise and monitor the possibility of the problem rearing its head in our life-time. Ironically, the same formula applies for those who are born with no underlying condition, and if high blood pressure is sustained, it largely comes down to poor choices.

Foods that are high in saturated fats, high salt and sugars, alcohol, caffeine and a sedentary lifestyle can all translate into obesity and the growth of plaque on the walls of the arteries. Once plaque builds up, the arteries become tense, constricted, or rigid, and are more resistant. This records as higher blood pressure, and makes it harder for the heart to do its job. Think of a garden hose, and how pliable the rubber is during the summer months. Come winter, that same hose becomes stiff and difficult to manipulate, and pretty much stays in the ‘O’ shape when it’s removed from the wall mount.

That’s what happens to your arteries as plaque builds inside them, unfortunately, and unlike the garden hose, the Spring thaw doesn’t bring back flexibility to the arteries, and overtime, they just get more unyielding.  Remembering the heart has one job to do, when conditions are more difficult, it’s less likely it can perform its task well, or at all.

Additionally, the relentless pounding of blood against the walls of the arteries causes them to become harder and narrower, potentially setting the stage for a heart attack or stroke. Without treatment, high blood pressure, or hypertension, can lead to grave health conditions, including heart failure, vision loss, stroke, and kidney disease.

How can I avoid high blood pressure?

Avoiding high blood pressure means taking care of your heart by looking after the well-being of your overall body, mind and spirit. Supporting heart health means strengthening the muscle with exercise. Just as exercise fortifies other muscles in your body, it also helps the heart work more efficient, making it better able to pump blood, and when the supporting organs in the body are functioning as they should, the heart has an easier job to do. This means that the heart pushes out more blood with each beat, allowing it to beat slower and keep your blood pressure under control.

It’s much easier to maintain your blood pressure when it’s normal, than it is to fix high blood pressure after it has taken hold.  So, the best time to think about it, is when you don’t have it.

In addition to keeping fit, there are a number of common-sense rules to follow. Here are the top ten guidelines you should be mindful of to keep blood pressure at bay, and smooth your way to a happier, healthier heart.

✔ Reduce your sodium intake.

The FDA and other health authorities recommend limiting salt intake to between 1.5 and 2.3 grams of sodium per day, or 2,300 mg, which is equal to about 1 teaspoon. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that these guidelines may be too low. People with high blood pressure should not exceed 7 grams per day. Source, FDA

✔ Drink less alcohol.

Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having more than three drinks in one sitting temporarily increases your blood pressure, but repeated binge drinking can lead to long-term increases. Source, Mayo Clinic

✔ Eat more potassium-rich foods.

Potassium is a key mineral that the body relies on heavily to function properly. It helps to lower blood pressure by balancing out the negative effects of salt. Your kidneys help to control your blood pressure by controlling the amount of fluid stored in your body. The more fluid, the higher your blood pressure. Source, Blood Pressure UK

✔ Cut back on caffeine.

Caffeine can cause a short, but dramatic increase in your blood pressure, even if you don’t have high blood pressure. Some researchers believe that caffeine blocks a hormone that helps keep your arteries widened. Source, Mayo Clinic

✔ Learn to manage stress.

Your body produces a surge of hormones when you’re in a stressful situation. These hormones temporarily increase your blood pressure by causing your heart to beat faster and your blood vessels to narrow. Source, Mayo Clinic

✔ Eat dark chocolate or raw cocoa.

24 chocolate studies involving 1,106 people found that dark chocolate, the kind that contains at least 50 to 70 percent cocoa, lowered blood pressure in all participants, but most notably in those with hypertension. … Dark chocolate also appears to affect cholesterol. Source, AARP

✔ Lose weight.

Being overweight or obese increases your risk of developing high blood pressure. In fact, your blood pressure rises as your body weight increases. Losing even 10 pounds can lower your blood pressure—and losing weight has the biggest effect on those who are overweight and already have hypertension. Source, National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute

✔ Herbal supplements.

There are many different herbs that have been verified to reduce BP. One, Hawthorne Berry, in particular has, again and again, via pharmacological and clinical trials, been shown to effectively lower BP. The two main substances that contribute to Hawthorn’s beneficial effects on the heart are flavonoids and oligomeric procyanidins, which are potent antioxidant agents. Source, Role of natural herbs in the treatment of hypertension, Nahida Tabassum and Feroz Ahmad

✔ Quit smoking.

The nicotine in cigarette smoke is a big part of the problem. It raises your blood pressure and heart rate, narrows your arteries and hardens their walls, and makes your blood more likely to clot. It stresses your heart and sets you up for a heart attack or stroke. Source, WebMD

✔ Meditate.

Meditation techniques are increasingly popular practices that may be useful in preventing or reducing elevated blood pressure. Transcendental meditation and mindfulness-based stress reduction may produce clinically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Source, National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute

Sources: Keiser Permanente Health Services, Mayo Clinic, National Institute of health, Harvard University Medical School

Article sponsored by Herbalmax Inc.

How stopping cell death may help prevent rheumatoid arthritis

Research in mice now shows that a specific cell death mechanism can lead to rheumatoid arthritis. Stopping this mechanism could help prevent this condition from developing, the authors argue.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune condition characterized mainly by pain and stiffness in the joints due to inflammation in the joint lining.

Some of the main risk factors for RA are age (people over 60 are more at risk), sex (this condition is more common in women), and the expression of specific genes. According to the Arthritis Foundation, around 54 million adults in the United States have a diagnosis of arthritis. Other data indicate that RA affects approximately 1% of the world’s population.

Can social interaction predict cognitive decline?

Overall, the authors found no relationship between social interaction and cognitive decline. However, when they delved into the beta-amyloid data, a pattern formed.

The researchers found that the influence of social activity was significant in individuals who had the highest levels of beta-amyloid in their brains. In this group, those with the lowest levels of social interaction showed higher levels of cognitive decline than individuals with similar levels of beta-amyloid but greater levels of social activity.

They also found that individuals who had lower cognitive abilities at the start of the study were more likely to become less socially engaged over the 3 years.

How Does Exercise Support Health Later in Life?

Insufficient physical activity causes around 3.2 million deaths worldwide each year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

These declining levels of physical activity may be due, in part, to an increase in sedentary behavior, heavy traffic areas, pollution, and a lack of parks and facilities.

For adults aged 65 and above, experts define physical activity as a combination of everyday tasks, such as work duties (if applicable), transportation, chores, and exercise they do during leisure time, such as walking, swimming, and gardening.

Do you have annuity with your immunity?

Take this Immunity Test to check you are doing everything you can to keep your immune system strong.

Our immune system is the gate keeper, without it, the human body could not survive on earth, with its biological environment filled with foreign invaders, parasites, bacteria and multitudes of viruses. On any given day, our system fights off this onslaught, sometimes simultaneously, without our knowing.

Our immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues and proteins that stands between the body and disease. Thankfully our immunity is a well-tuned machine, and deals with most invaders like a champ, but nothing is perfect, and for various reasons it can slip up, become overwhelmed, or is busy doing other things for us, and we become sick. How often this happens depends on how strong the immune system is, how frequently our bodies are exposed to pathogens and what we do on a daily basis to support, or hurt immunity through health and life choices. 

We regularly talk about immunity like it’s a singular structure, but actually it’s three. From the minute we are born, our bodies protect us with an in-built, or an innate immunity. The minute our bodies come into contact with an antigen, or any substance that can spark an immune response, we begin to build our own unique adaptive immunity, which continues to take shape through the course of our lives as we are introduced and reintroduced to different pathogens. We can also, in essence, borrow immunity from sources like medicine, or our mothers during breastfeeding, but that is not a permanent protection and fades when the “immunity loan” stops.

As immunity effects the body, the body effects immunity, and how we treat not just our physical selves, but our minds and emotional lives, leaves a powerful impression back on our immune health. How we live, what we eat, where we live, what we do for work, how we play, are all significant to the health of our immunity.

Take steps to avoid infection, such as washing your hands frequently and cooking meats thoroughly.

So, the question is, how are you treating your immune system? In other words, have you accrued any annuity with your immunity?

The immune system is precisely that, a system, not a single entity and to function well, it requires balance and harmony. So, there are differing points of view when it comes to quantifying the impact of good health practices have on the system of immunity, but researchers are exploring the effects of diet, exercise, age, psychological stress, and other factors on the immune response, both in animals and in humans.

In the meantime, general healthy-living strategies are a good way to start giving your immune system the upper hand.


Don’t smoke. Smoking is more than a dirty habit, it’s an assault on every cell in your body and damages the immune system, often irreparably.

Aside from the damage it does to every other organ in the body because of the over 70 known carcinogens in a single cigarette, there are added elements like tar, oxidizing chemicals, metals and radio-active compounds that the body’s immune system is forced to process, causing greater susceptibility to infections such as pneumonia and influenza with the unwelcomed effects of longer-lasting illnesses.

Eat a diet high in fruits and vegetables. There is little debate there is a direct connection between the foods we eat and health. It is often so direct, that stomach distress can come immediately after eating a food that doesn’t agree with us.

When we eat a fatty, high sugar, processed food diet manufactured with chemicals, colors and additives, our bodies work hard to eliminate the toxins that are introduced. The more poisons our body have to deal with, the less likely over-time it will effectively be able to eliminate them, causing stress on the systems of the body, particularly the immune system.

Exercise regularly. Moderate exercise seems to have a beneficial effect on the immune function, which could protect against upper respiratory tract infections. Exercise has positive effects on both the humoral and the cellular immune system.

Studies among athletes have surprisingly uncovered that after strenuous exercise, athletes pass through a period of impaired immune resistance. Pointing to any activity that causes stress on the body, mind or emotional state which is the root of the exhaustion. In essence, the body does not distinguish between fatigue from exercise and exhaustion from anywhere else.

Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity is at epidemic proportions, and the number one factor behind many diseases today. Food manufacturers over-process with staggering measure to the point where the nutrition we take in is more often than not off-set by the way the food is made. Over the years, advertising influencers have normalized poor diet, resetting what we might consider a ‘healthy’ food. In 2016, the World Health Organization reported 1.9 billion people were overweight; that was the better part of 15 percent of the total population of 7.9 billion people at that time.

Carrying extra weight impacts every system of the body, and as we age the effects are catastrophic. People who carry just 5% extra of their body mass are subject to disproportionate health risks such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, arterial disease, stroke, cancer, and depression compromising the body’s immunity.

Drink alcohol in moderation. Alcohol impairs mucosal immunity in the gut and lowers respiratory development, and leaves the body open for progression of certain cancers.

The National Library of Medicine reports, clinicians observed an association between excessive alcohol consumption and adverse immune-related health effects such as susceptibility to pneumonia. In recent decades, this association has been expanded to a greater likelihood of acute respiratory stress syndromes (ARDS), sepsis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and certain cancers; a higher incidence of postoperative complications; and slower and less complete recovery from infection and physical trauma, including poor wound healing.

Get adequate sleep. Although our immune system works round the clock, it’s when we sleep that our immunity kicks into full gear. When our body rests, our immune system releases proteins called cytokines, some of which help promote sleep. Cytokines participate in many physiological processes including the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. In turn, infection-fighting antibodies and cells are reduced during periods when you don’t get enough sleep.

Further, researchers in the study of gene expression reported that circadian rhythms govern a large array of metabolic and physiological functions and are generated by an intrinsic cellular mechanism that in-turn controls a large range of physiological and metabolic processes. So, in essence, when we lose sync with our sleep clock, a whole range of health issues can crop up, leaving our conceded immune system to clean up the pieces.

Avoid infection. Not as simple as it sounds as viruses or bacteria are all around us, but there are plenty of measures we can take to reduce our risks.

  • Get vaccinated, and make sure your kids are too.
  • Wash your hands frequently, especially after coughing.
  • Stay home if you are sick (so you do not spread the illness to other people).
  • Use a tissue, or cough and sneeze into your arm, not your hand.
  • Wash your hands after coughing, sneezing or using tissues.
  • Clean children’s toys regularly, especially if they are sharing with friends.
  • Do not touch your eyes, nose or mouth with unclean hands.
  • Do not share cups, glasses, dishes or cutlery.

Supplement immune boosters. Support healthy immune systems with quality and 100% natural, bioactive benefits like the Immune Booster Formula by Herbalmax.

Designed to naturally and powerfully lift the immune system, Immune Booster controls t-helper cells 1 and 2, essentially regulating the body’s immune responses. Regular intake of Immune Booster or a very good immune support supplement sustains the day to day silent battles our immunity confronts.

Consider taking a best in class proprietary blend like Immune Booster as a backup ideal for travelers and people who frequent crowded places.

Powerful ingredients like the Astragalus and Acai Berry plants, both an essential part of the proprietary blend of the Herbalmax Immune Booster, have strong antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties as well as being highly effective free-radical scavengers, and works harmoniously with the natural biochemistry of the body to support a healthy immune system.


  1. Afd. Experimentele Laboratoriumgeneeskunde, Universitair Ziekenhuis Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, België. axel.jeurissen@uz.kuleuven.ac.be
  2. Smoking – effects on your body, Better Health Channel, Victoria State Government.
  3. Winstanley M, et al., 2015, ‘Chapter 3. The health effects of active smoking’, Tobacco in Australia: Facts and Issues, Cancer Council Victoria.
  4. Alcohol and the Immune System
  5. Dipak Sarkar, Ph.D., D.Phil., M. Katherine Jung, Ph.D., and H. Joe Wang, Ph.D.
  6. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/insomnia/expert-answers/lack-of-sleep/faq-20057757
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8813336